From the motor the exhaust gases pass through a cast iron manifold, which is restrictive (this can be changed to extractors).
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How exhausts work
The Exhaust System is designed primarily to get the exhaust gases from the motor to the rear of the vehicle while quietening the gases along the way.
The gases flow from the manifold through the engine pipe and into the catalytic converter. Established as a legal requirement close to 20 years ago, the catalytic converter converts harmful gases into safer emissions.
The gasses then pass through a resonator (a small centre muffler).
From here the gases stream along the connecting pipe to the rear muffler. The muffler on most vehicles works by changing the direction of the gases & making the soundwaves counteract &consequently quieter.
Finally the gases leave the vehicle via the tailpipe.